Links and External Resources

Links and External Resources

Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations – Daily Amount Fact Sheet (Dosage)

Cannabis (marijuana, marihuana) is not an approved therapeutic drug in Canada. At present, while pointing to some potential therapeutic benefits, the scientific evidence does not establish the safety and efficacy of marijuana to the extent required by the Food and Drug Regulations for marketed drugs in Canada. However, the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations provide a mechanism for patients to access dried marijuana for medical purposes, and the Section 56 Exemptions provide a mechanism for patients to access fresh marijuana and cannabis oil with the support of their physician or nurse practitioner (where authorized by provincial regulatory authorities).

Canadian Human Rights Act (CHRA)

An Act to extend the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination. The purpose of this Act is to extend the laws in Canada to give effect, within the purview of matters coming within the legislative authority of Parliament, to the principle that all individuals should have an opportunity equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, consistent with their duties and obligations as members of society, without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability or conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.

Canadian Model for Providing a Safe Workplace: Alcohol and Drug Guidelines and Work Rule

The COAA Canadian Model closely follows the standards specified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for alcohol and drug testing standards and procedures. 

Bill C-45 (Westray Bill)

Bill C-45 is federal legislation that amended the Canadian Criminal Code and became law on March 31, 2004. The Bill established new legal duties for workplace health and safety, and imposed serious penalties for violations that result in injuries or death. The Bill provided new rules for attributing criminal liability to organizations, including corporations, their representatives and those who direct the work of others.

Bill C-45, also known as the “Westray Bill”, was created as a result of the 1992 Westray coal mining disaster in Nova Scotia where 26 miners were killed after methane gas ignited causing an explosion. Despite serious safety concerns raised by employees, union officials and government inspectors at the time, the company instituted few changes. Eventually, the disaster occurred. After the accident the police and provincial government failed to secure a conviction against the company or three of its managers. A Royal Commission of Inquiry was established to investigate the disaster. In 1998, the Royal Commission made 74 recommendations. The findings of this commission (in particular recommendation 73) were the movement that led to Bill C-45.

Duty to Accommodate: A General Process for Managers

Canadian law prohibits discrimination based on any of the eleven grounds identified in section 2 of the Canadian Human Rights Act (CHRA) and employers have a duty to accommodate employees to avoid such discrimination. Employers must accommodate employees who fall into the groups protected by the CHRA up to the point of undue hardship, taking into account health, safety and cost.

To demonstrate that the duty to accommodate has been fulfilled, the employer must be able to document the process that was observed in considering and acting on the employee’s request for accommodation. This document has been prepared to provide a general process to follow when assessing an accommodation request.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS)

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the United States government’s principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA’s mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America’s communities.

U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Model provides a comprehensive set of procedures and standards for alcohol and drug testing. Adherence to this Model is a requirement for any transportation company that crosses the Canadian/US border as part of their business. Closely mirrored by the COAA Model, notable differences are the mandatory use of lab based urine testing for all test reasons as well as mandatory random testing for all drivers that fall under these regulations.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

The ADA is one of America’s most comprehensive pieces of civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination and guarantees that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else to participate in the mainstream of American life – to enjoy employment opportunities, to purchase goods and services, and to participate in State and local government programs and services. Modeled after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin – and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 – the ADA is an “equal opportunity” law for people with disabilities.

To be protected by the ADA, one must have a disability, which is defined by the ADA as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered.

Substance Abuse Program Administrators Association (SAPAA)

The Substance Abuse Program Administrators Association mission is to establish, promote, and communicate the highest standards of quality, integrity, and professionalism in the administration of workplace substance abuse prevention programs through education, training and the exchange of ideas. Members range from the new and inexperienced to the seasoned professional in various capacities, which principally include: owners and managers of private substance abuse testing firms; directors of substance abuse programs in the corporate sector; coordinators of substance abuse programs in medical facilities; representatives of industry service providers, such as testing laboratories and equipment manufacturers, MROs and collectors; and government officials from agencies that have interest in the area of substance abuse detection.

Threads of Life

Threads of Life is a national charitable organization dedicated to supporting families along their journey of healing who have suffered from a workplace fatality, life-altering illness or occupational disease.

Canadian Society of Safety Engineering (CSSE)

The Canadian Society of Safety Engineering (CSSE) is the leading health, safety and environmental organization for professionals in Canada. We work with industry, governmental agencies, and other safety organizations to promote a greater awareness of health, safety, and environmental issues in workplaces and communities across the nation and around the world. Our vision is “An Advocate for Safety in Every Workplace”. CSSE is a national organization, supporting the operation of 36 local Chapters. Chapters provide local forums for information exchange and networking among professionals. Through Chapter meetings and activities, members promote and enhance the profile of the profession in communities throughout Canada. Our mission is to be the resource for professional development, knowledge and information exchange to our members, our profession and the Canadian public.